21 Aug 2011


    In an interaction between the individual with others, whether others will accept or reject, how they want others to know about them will be determined by how individuals in expressing themselves. Self-disclosure is the process of presenting themselves embodied in the activities to share feelings and information with others (Wrightsman, 1987).
   According to Morton (in Sears, et al., 1989) self-disclosure is an activity to share intimate feelings and information with others. Information in this self-disclosure is descriptive or evaluative. Deskniptif means individuals portray the facts about yourself that may not be known by listeners like, occupation, address and age. While the evaluative meaning individuals to express opinions or personal feelings such as the type of person who liked or things that are disliked or hated.
   Self-disclosure may include a variety of topics such as information behavior, attitudes, feelings, desires, motivations and ideas that fit and are within the person concerned. The depth and disclosure of a person depends on the situation and people are encouraged to interact. If the people who interact with the fun and make feel safe and can evoke the spirit of the possibilities for depressed individuals to open up more is great. In contrast to certain people who can just shut down because they felt less confident (DeVito, 1992).
In the process of self-disclosure appears to the individuals involved have a tendency to follow the norms of reciprocal (mutual). If someone told me something that is personal, it will tend to give an equivalent reaction. In general, expect others to treat the same as treating them (Raven & Rubin, 1983).
"Someone who disclose personal information that is more familiar than we do will make us feel threatened and we will be happy to put an end to this kind of relationship. If instead we are expressing ourselves too familiar than others, we will feel stupid and insecure "(Sears, et al., 1988).
   Culture also has an influence in the disclosure of a person. Each nation with cultural patterns each providing a certain extent appropriate or inappropriate individuals express themselves. Kurt Lewin (in Raven & Rubin, 1983) from the peneitiannya found that Americans seem easier to open than the Germans, but this openness is only limited to the superficial things and are very reluctant to reveal concerning their personal . On the other hand, the Germans were initially more difficult to express themselves even for things that are the surface, but if you already trust, then they are not reluctant to divulge their deepest personal.
Levels of self-disclosure In the process of interpersonal relationships there are different levels of self-disclosure. According to Powell (in Supratikna, 1995) levels of self-disclosure in communication, namely:
a. Small talk is the level of expression of the most weak or shallow, although there is openness among individuals, therapy is not going relationships. Each individual berkomuniikasi preamble merely modesty.
b. Talking about others disclosed in the communication was about other people or things outside himself. Although at this level of communication more in-depth content, but at this level the individual does not express itself.
c. Stated idea or opinion already woven a close relationship. Individuals began to reveal himself to another individual.
d. Feeling: every individual can have the same idea or opinion but a feeling or emotion that accompanies the idea or the opinion of each individual can vary. Any relationship that wants a private meeting between a genuine, must be based upon a relationship which is honest, open and suggest that profound feelings.
e. Relationships summit: self-disclosure has been done in depth, individuals who establish interpersonal relationships can appreciate the feelings experienced by other individuals. Any deep and true friendship should be based on self-disclosure and absolute honesty.
   While Alman and Taylor put forward a model of the development of relations with self-disclosure as the main media. The process to achieve the intimacy of interpersonal relationships is called the social penetration. Social penetration occurs in two main dimensions of breadth and depth. Breadth dimension that is where one can communicate with anyone whether strangers or close friends. While the depth dimension in which the person communicating with someone close, beginning and development of a superficial relationship to a close relationship, or revealing things that are personal about him. In general, when dealing with strangers a little in-depth self-disclosure and a narrow range (the subject a bit). While the usual introductions, self-disclosure deeper and wider ranges. While the relationship with close friend indicated the existence of a deep self-disclosure and the range is the widest (subject more) (Sears, et al., 1999).
The function of self-disclosure. According Derlega and Grzelak (in Sears, et al., 1988) there are five functions of self-expression, namely:
a. (Expression) In this life men sometimes experience a disappointment or frustration, whether it's related to the job or the other. To get rid of all this resentment will usually feel good when telling a friend I had trusted. With this kind of human self-disclosure had the opportunity to express our feelings.
b. (Self-clarification) With a sense of sharing and telling your feelings and issues being addressed to others, people expect to be able to obtain an explanation and understanding of others will be problems encountered so that the mind will become more clear and can see how the problem better.
c. (Social validation) When finished talking about the problem at hand, usually the listener will provide feedback on these issues in so doing, will get some useful information about the truth of our views. We can get the support or otherwise.
d. (social control) One can express or conceal information about his situation that is intended to hold a social control, for example, people will say something that can cause a good impression about him.
e. (Relationship development). Each other and share information about ourselves to others and mutual trust is the most important advice in an effort to pioneer a relationship that will further increase the degree of familiarity.
Guidelines for the Self-Disclosure Self-disclosure is sometimes pose dangers, such as risk of rejection or ridicule of others, can even lead to material losses. For that, we should study carefully the consequences before deciding to perform self-disclosure. According to DeVito (1992) things to consider in self-disclosure is as follows:
a. Motivation to perform self-disclosure Disclosure must be driven by a sense of self-interest in relationships with others and yourself. Because self-disclosure is not only concerned with ourselves, but also concerned with other people. Sometimes we express openness may hurt the feelings of others.
b. Suitability of self-disclosure. In conducting the self-disclosure should be tailored to the circumstances. Self-disclosure should be done at the right time and place. For example if we want to express something to people then we should be able to see whether the time and place are correct.
c. Reciprocity and others. During the self disclosure, give the listener a chance to make the disclosure themselves. If the other person's self-disclosure we are not doing well, then there is the possibility that people are not like the openness that we do.

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